Installation of cabling and associated appliances such as distribution boards, switches, sockets, and light fittings is majorly categorized as electrical wiring of a house. How well the electrical works of a unit will perform over years is majorly determined by the quality of electrical wiring used. At times, good electrical wiring often helps in saving electrical bills as well. Large (thick) cables bring electricity to a house and then smaller cables and wires distribute it throughout the house. Almost all household cables (preferably) are made of copper, aluminum and silver are also occasionally used. A plastic, rubber, or paper-like coating is used which is called insulation. Insulation serves as a barrier to keep the electrical charge and heat in the wire.
The way; electricity travels from source to appliances:
Through electrical wiring, electrical current travels from source (supply point) to various appliances and equipment at home like television, lamps, air conditioners, etc. Before entering your home, electricity passes through an electricity measuring meter. This meter measures the amount of electricity being used. After this, electricity passes through the load centre. At that point, circuit protection devices such as circuit-breakers or fuses are located. After that, Electricity is finally distributed throughout your home using interior circuits which provide power to appliances and lights.
Types of Wires used in a home:
A single wire is known as a single conductor. Number of single conductors twisted with each other, form a cable. Just as a highway can handle more vehicles than a small street, a large size wire will allow more current to pass than small size wire. Therefore, size of cable must be chosen as per use (current passing a certain point). In addition to standard electrical wire, a house has several other types of wire needed for the telephone, cable television, speakers, and so on. Most of these wires do not carry a dangerous electrical current because they operate on very low voltage.
Various types of house electrical wiring:
There are number of available options of electrical wiring in a home that you can use according to your demand, desire and affordability. Discussed below, are five wiring systems which will surely help you better understand.
- Cleat wiring system:
In cleat wiring system, wires are held on ceilings and walls. The cables used in this wiring comprise of PVC insulated wires. Porcelain cleats are used to keep electrical cables on a wall or any other surface. In this wiring system, when a circuit or cables pass through another circuit or cables then insulators are used on lower cables for safety purpose. At the turning points in cleat wiring, special types of cleats are being used. It is a temporary wiring system, therefore making it unsuitable for homes. Moreover, cleat wiring system is rarely being used these days. Sometimes, this type of wiring is used in temporary army campus or in festivals.
- Casing & capping Wiring:
In this wiring, VIR or PVC insulated cables are used. Generally PVC or VIR insulated wires are carried through the casing enclosure and capping is used to cover the casing. This kind of wiring is very old fashioned, but it has many advantages. For instance, it is cheap and easy to install. It is durable and strong wiring. Moreover, it is also safe from smoke, dust, rain and steam etc.
- Batten Wiring:
This wiring option is suitable, when a single electrical wire or a group of wires are laid over a wooden batten. Material Used in Batten Wiring is CTS or TRS cable. Tinned brass link clip (also known as buckle clip) are used to hold the wires to the batten. Buckle clips are fixed with brass pins on the wooden batten at an interval 10 cm for horizontal runs and 15 cm for vertical runs. Advantages of this type of wiring are; installation is easy, material cost is low, appearance is batter, and chances of current leakage are less.
- Lead sheathed wiring:
In this wiring the conductors have been used which are insulated with VIR. The conductors are covered with a sheath of lead aluminum alloy. Lead aluminum alloy contains about 95% lead. The metal sheath gives protection to cables from mechanical damage, atmospheric corrosion and moisture.
- Concealed Wiring:
This wiring is properly named as concealed conduit wiring. It is very difficult to install this wiring. The wiring layout is done under the plaster of the wall of the building. Conduit pipes are buried under the plaster of wall with GI wire (Galvanized wire – is a wire having coating of zinc to sheets of steel or iron). After, with the help of GI wires, the main PVC insulated cables are drawn through the conduit.
In the end, keep one suggestion in your mind. There are number of problems that can happen in electrical circuits. So, because of the potential fire hazard faulty wiring can present, whatever electrical wiring you chose maintain them properly and repair it immediately after a problem.